Increasing dietary fiber is another strategy for balancing ghrelin. Studies have shown that intake of beta-glucan (ranging from 4-6 grams) appears to decrease appetite. 20 Numerous other studies have suggested that the feeling of fullness in the stomach after fiber consumption helps to modulate ghrelin, and a diet high in fiber helps to accomplish this while minimizing caloric intake. One study concluded, “Although the mechanism is not precisely known, the data suggest that the fiber intake may inhibit high-fat diet induced leptin secretion and gastric ghrelin gene expression.” 21
Several important peptide hormones are secreted from the pituitary gland. The anterior pituitary secretes three hormones: prolactin , which acts on the mammary gland ; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which acts on the adrenal cortex to regulate the secretion of glucocorticoids ; and growth hormone , which acts on bone , muscle , and the liver . The posterior pituitary gland secretes antidiuretic hormone , also called vasopressin, and oxytocin . Peptide hormones are produced by many different organs and tissues, however, including the heart ( atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)) and pancreas ( glucagon , insulin and somatostatin ), the gastrointestinal tract ( cholecystokinin , gastrin ), and adipose tissue stores ( leptin ).