Secosteroid

Structural relationship of vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D 2 (ergocalciferol) with their respective provitamins, cholesterol, and a classic steroid hormone, cortisol (see inset box). The two structural representations presented at the bottom for both vitamin D 3 and vitamin D .2 are equivalent; these are simply different ways of drawing the same molecule. It is to be emphasized that vitamin D 3 is the naturally occurring form of the vitamin; it is produced from 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is present in the skin, by the action of sunlight (see Figure 2). Vitamin D 2 (which is equivalently potent to vitamin D 3 in humans and many mammals, but not birds) is produced commercially by the irradiation of the plant sterol ergosterol with ultraviolet light.

Salivary Pathogen Molecular Testing – we strongly encourage all or our clients to have a simple saliva molecular test (provided at our clinic) to determine definitively and quantitatively which periodontal pathogens are present in their infection .  Every case is different. This highly definitive test directs treatment therapy moving forward and provides valuable information about the decision to use adjunctive systemic antibiotics . This is considered “individualized periodontal medicine” since we are not guessing about virulent pathogen involvement, thus we can pinpoint the appropriate short term antibiotic for the infection.  Health history factors and medical lab test results are take into account before any definitive decisions are made for appropriate therapy moving forward.  We often involve the medical doctor (or specialist, such as a cardiologist) in the decision making process based on systemic health issues already present. For example, if a patient has a history of heart disease, atherosclerosis, or stroke, and the molecular pathogen test returns with high levels of certain pathogens known to contribute to vascular inflammation , we are going to be much more proactive in our multidisciplinary treatment approach.  This would mean more frequent pathogen testing and possibly a much more frequent supportive periodontal maintenance program. This also empowers the patient through education, if the patient is educated to understand the mouth-body connection, and how it can relate to serious systemic diseases, they can become more involved in their own co-therapy.

If vitamin D level in the blood is merely a biomarker, a consequence of good or bad health, then adding  vitamin D to the diet will not necessarily improve your health.  To really know whether vitamin D supplementation is beneficial, we need to look at interventional studies, where supplements are provided, and the outcomes are compared with those of control subjects who don’t get the supplement.  In fact the two above-cited studies on the effects of supplementation on bone fractures in older women, and prostrate cancer in older men are two such interventional studies.  And they showed that vitamin D supplementation was harmful in both cases.  And note that the positive Utah study I cited above–showing a correlation between low vitamin D levels and elevated incidence of cardiovascular disease and stroke–was an observational study, not an interventional one.  The men in that study with the higher vitamin D blood levels and lower incidence of heart disease were not given supplements.

Steroid isolation , depending on context, is the isolation of chemical matter required for chemical structure elucidation, derivitzation or degradation chemistry, biological testing, and other research needs (generally milligrams to grams, but often more [38] or the isolation of "analytical quantities" of the substance of interest (where the focus is on identifying and quantifying the substance (for example, in biological tissue or fluid). The amount isolated depends on the analytical method, but is generally less than one microgram. [39] [ page needed ] The methods of isolation to achieve the two scales of product are distinct, but include extraction , precipitation, adsorption , chromatography , and crystallization . In both cases, the isolated substance is purified to chemical homogeneity; combined separation and analytical methods, such as LC-MS , are chosen to be "orthogonal"—achieving their separations based on distinct modes of interaction between substance and isolating matrix—to detect a single species in the pure sample. Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an evolving array of chemical and physical methods which have included NMR and small-molecule crystallography . [2] : 10–19 Methods of analysis overlap both of the above areas, emphasizing analytical methods to determining if a steroid is present in a mixture and determining its quantity. [39]

Secosteroid

secosteroid

Steroid isolation , depending on context, is the isolation of chemical matter required for chemical structure elucidation, derivitzation or degradation chemistry, biological testing, and other research needs (generally milligrams to grams, but often more [38] or the isolation of "analytical quantities" of the substance of interest (where the focus is on identifying and quantifying the substance (for example, in biological tissue or fluid). The amount isolated depends on the analytical method, but is generally less than one microgram. [39] [ page needed ] The methods of isolation to achieve the two scales of product are distinct, but include extraction , precipitation, adsorption , chromatography , and crystallization . In both cases, the isolated substance is purified to chemical homogeneity; combined separation and analytical methods, such as LC-MS , are chosen to be "orthogonal"—achieving their separations based on distinct modes of interaction between substance and isolating matrix—to detect a single species in the pure sample. Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an evolving array of chemical and physical methods which have included NMR and small-molecule crystallography . [2] : 10–19 Methods of analysis overlap both of the above areas, emphasizing analytical methods to determining if a steroid is present in a mixture and determining its quantity. [39]

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