The study aims to assess whether supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) can reduce the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel trial was conducted in New Zealand (NZ) (Wellington and Auckland). Pregnant women with a personal or partner history of atopic disease were randomised at 14–16 weeks’ gestation to receive HN001 (6×10 9 colony-forming units) ( n 212) or placebo ( n 211) daily. GDM at 24–30 weeks was assessed using the definition of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) (fasting plasma glucose ≥5·1 mmol/l, or 1 h post 75 g glucose level at ≥10 mmol/l or at 2 h ≥8·5 mmol/l) and NZ definition (fasting plasma glucose ≥5·5 mmol/l or 2 h post 75 g glucose at ≥9 mmol/l). All analyses were intention-to-treat. A total of 184 (87 %) women took HN001 and 189 (90 %) women took placebo. There was a trend towards lower relative rates (RR) of GDM (IADPSG definition) in the HN001 group, 0·59 (95 % CI 0·32, 1·08) ( P =0·08). HN001 was associated with lower rates of GDM in women aged ≥35 years (RR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·81, P =0·009) and women with a history of GDM (RR 0·00; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·66, P =0·004). These rates did not differ significantly from those of women without these characteristics. Using the NZ definition, GDM prevalence was significantly lower in the HN001 group, 2·1 % (95 % CI 0·6, 5·2), v . 6·5 % (95 % CI 3·5, 10·9) in the placebo group ( P =0·03). HN001 supplementation from 14 to 16 weeks’ gestation may reduce GDM prevalence, particularly among older women and those with previous GDM.
This section cited in 22 Pa. Code § (relating to high school education).
SCHEDULING AND LEARNING OPTIONS
§ . Scheduling. (a) Kindergarten programs shall provide each kindergarten student with at least 2 1/2 hours of instruction each day for the full school term unless the school district, including charter schools, obtains prior Department approval for an alternative kindergarten program. (b) A school district, including charter schools, shall obtain approval of the Department prior to scheduling 1/2-day sessions other than in kindergarten under subsection (a). A school district is not required to obtain approval of the Department prior to scheduling 1/2 day sessions for prekindergarten under subsection (e). (c) A school district shall obtain approval of the Department prior to establishing a new school or changing school organization. (d) Planned instruction offered in summer school may be designed as credit or noncredit offerings. (e) School districts with prekindergarten programs shall provide prekindergarten students with at least 2 1/2 hours of instruction each day for the full school term unless the school district obtains prior Department approval for an alternative prekindergarten program.