So here’s my advice to voters who ostensibly refuse to vote for anyone under serious PED suspicion … Get out in front of this thing, guys. Try to look ahead five or 10 years. See where this thing’s going to be. And don’t wait for that to happen. Instead of getting dragged, kicking and shouting and screaming all the while, to the inevitable conclusion, take the lead. Do some reporting. Put things into context. Celebrate the players — assuming you can find any — who spoke out against drug use within the Players Association. Write about the impacts of cheating without resorting to ill-devised moral crusades.
Typically, any athlete who tests positive for banned substances after having served a previous ban receives a lifetime ban from the sport of athletics. Many high-profile sportspeople to receive doping bans have come from the sport of athletics, with significant past cases concerning Ben Johnson , Marion Jones and Tim Montgomery . Furthermore, a number of athletes who underwent state-sponsored doping programmes in East Germany between the 1960s and 1980s were competitors in athletics, but the quality of the international anti-doping work was so poor that only one East German athlete ever tested positive.  Following allegations of state-sponsored doping in Russia , the IAAF suspended the country's athletes from competition, including the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Increased educational resources are available to at least certain age groups and are now reaching larger numbers of children. The percentage of pre-adolescent athletes who have heard of steroids has increased significantly from 78% in 1989 to 88% in the current survey (p<.05). In 1989, only 50% of respondents had had steroid side effects explained to them. This significantly increased to 64% in the current study (p<.05). Currently, 60% of respondents felt that steroids, even if used carefully, would still harm the athlete compared to 56% in 1989 (p<.05). Furthermore, 65% currently consider steroid use a drug problem compared to 57% in 1989 (p<.05).